Cancer imaging

Bioxydyn provides advanced functional MRI biomarkers in oncology, using techniques such as diffusion MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, and is the leading CRO offering tumor hypoxia imaging to inform therapy effectiveness or characterise tumour physiology.

Diffusion MRI (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) detects changes in water diffusion, which is a sensitive marker for cancer. These changes are typically associated with the earliest stages of biological response to treatment and so can act as early markers of the influence of intervention.

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is recognised by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA) as a functional imaging biomarker of angiogenesis and vascular function in cancer. Bioxydyn personnel bring decades of experience to the study of cancer using DCE-MRI.

We are world-leading in the use of Oxygen-enhanced MRI (OE-MRI), which can be applied to monitor the delivery of oxygen to tumours. This is of particular utility, as tumour oxygenation levels are known to impact on disease progression and on response to therapy. Our method for identifying and imaging tumour hypoxia has been shown to be sensitive to drug and radiotherapy effects. Bioxydyn personnel lead the field in developing and deploying OE-MRI.


Little RA, Jamin Y, Boult JKR, Naish JH, Watson Y, Cheung S, Holliday KF, Lu H, McHugh DJ, Irlam J, West CML, Betts GN, Ashton G, Reynolds AR, Maddineni S, Clarke NW, Parker GJM, Waterton JC, Robinson SP, O'Connor JPB, Mapping Hypoxia in Renal Carcinoma with Oxygen-enhanced MRI: Comparison with Intrinsic Susceptibility MRI and Pathology. Radiology. 2018 Sep;288(3):739-747.

O'Connor JP, Aboagye EO, Adams JE, Aerts HJ, Barrington SF, Beer AJ, [...], Waterton JC, Imaging biomarker roadmap for cancer studies. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2017 Mar;14(3):169-186.

Little RA, Barjat H, Hare JI, Jenner M, Watson Y, Cheung S, Holliday K, Zhang W, O'Connor JPB, Barry ST, Puri S, Parker GJM, Waterton JC, Evaluation of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI biomarkers for stratified cancer medicine: How do permeability and perfusion vary between human tumours? Magn Reson Imaging. 2018 Feb;46:98-105.

O'Connor JP, Naish JH, Parker GJ, Waterton JC, Watson Y, Jayson GC, Buonaccorsi GA, Cheung S, Buckley DL, McGrath DM, West CM, Davidson SE, Roberts C, Mills SJ, Mitchell CL, Hope L, Ton NC, Jackson A, Preliminary study of oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation in MRI: a potential novel biomarker of oxygenation changes in solid tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Nov 15;75(4):1209-15.

O'Connor JPB, Robinson SP, Waterton JC, Imaging tumour hypoxia with oxygen-enhanced MRI and BOLD MRI. Br J Radiol. 2019 Mar;92(1095):20180642.

O'Connor JP, Rose CJ, Waterton JC, Carano RA, Parker GJ, Jackson A, Imaging intratumor heterogeneity: role in therapy response, resistance, and clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jan 15;21(2):249-57.

How can we help?

Contact us at