Bioxydyn has delivered multiple studies for pharmaceutical companies in the quantitative imaging of inflammation in a wide range of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

We use dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to quantify changes in perfusion and endothelial integrity in the presence of inflammation and during treatment. Bioxydyn has defined many of the standard approaches to the technique’s implementation in clinical trials.

DCE-MRI involves the use of standard clinical intravenously-administered gadolinium-based contrast agents. The uptake and washout of the agent is interpreted using physiological modelling methods to provide imaging biomarkers of microvascular function and inflammation.

Bioxydyn uses the Ktrans quantitative biomarker which has SI units (min-1) and can be readily compared between centres. Its relationship to the intensity of inflammation is based on sound and widely accepted science, is extremely sensitive to drug effects, and only requires small patient numbers.


MacKay JW, Nezhad FS, Rifai T, Kaggie JD, Naish JH, Roberts C, Graves MJ, Waterton JC, Janiczek RL, Roberts AR, McCaskie A, Gilbert FJ, Parker GJM, Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of synovitis in knee osteoarthritis: repeatability, discrimination and sensitivity to change in a prospective experimental study. Eur Radiol. 2021 Aug;31(8):5746-5758.

Mitsides N, Alsehli FMS, Mc Hough D, Shalamanova L, Wilkinson F, Alderdice J, Mitra R, Swiecicka A, Brenchley P, Parker GJM, Alexander MY, Mitra S, Salt and Water Retention Is Associated with Microinflammation and Endothelial Injury in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nephron. 2019;143(4):234-242.

Skeoch S, Hubbard Cristinacce PL, Dobbs M, Naish J, Woodhouse N, Ho M, Waterton JC, Parker GJM, Bruce IN, Evaluation of non-contrast MRI biomarkers in lupus nephritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017 Nov-Dec;35(6):954-958.

Waterton JC, Ho M, Nordenmark LH, Jenkins M, DiCarlo J, Guillard G, Roberts C, Buonaccorsi G, Parker GJM, Bowes MA, Peterfy C, Kellner H, Taylor PC, Repeatability and response to therapy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis in a large multicentre trial setting. Eur Radiol. 2017 Sep;27(9):3662-3668.

Tiddens HA, Stick SM, Wild JM, Ciet P, Parker GJ, Koch A, Vogel-Claussen J, Respiratory tract exacerbations revisited: ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure (VIPS) monitoring to redefine treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015 Oct;50 Suppl 40:S57-65.

Williams TG, Holmes AP, Waterton JC, Maciewicz RA, Hutchinson CE, Moots RJ, Nash AF, Taylor CJ, Anatomically corresponded regional analysis of cartilage in asymptomatic and osteoarthritic knees by statistical shape modelling of the bone. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2010 Aug;29(8):1541-59.

Creamer P, Keen M, Zananiri F, Waterton JC, Maciewicz RA, Oliver C, Dieppe P, Watt I, Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee: a method of measuring response to intra-articular treatments. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997 Jun;56(6):378-81.

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